Thursday, July 18, 2013

Some words in Euripides' Hippolytus

As we begin Euripides' Hippolytus, I'll be putting occasional notes here, some strictly philological in nature, others as seems fit.

Three words that come back again and again, with almost hypnotic regularity, are:

From Ancient Greek σωφροσύνη (sōphrōsunē, “soundness of mind, prudence, self control, temperance”) from σώφρων (sōphrōn, “sane, moderate, prudent”) (from σῶς (sōs, “safe, sound, whole”) + φρήν (phrēn, “mind”)) +‎ -σύνη.

Sophrosyne is the subject of Plato's Charmides, and is treated in Book 2 of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.

semnos  σεμνός  revered, august, holy: 
I. [select] prop. of gods, e.g. Demeter, h.Cer.1,486; Hecate, Pi.P.3.79; Thetis,Id.N.5.25; etc. 
2. of things divine, ὄργια ς. h.Cer.478, S.Tr.765; “θέμεθλαδίκης” Sol.4.14; “ὑγίεια” Simon.70;  devoted to the gods,  holiness,D.21.126
II. of human or half-human beings, reverend, august,ἐν θρόνῳσεμνῷ σεμνὸν θωκέονταHdt.2.173,  E.Fr.688; αἱφαυλότεραι . . παρὰ τὰς σεμνὰς καθεδοῦνται beside the great ladies,Ar.Ec.617, cf. Isoc.3.42; “οἱ σεμνότατοι ἐν ταῖς πόλεσινPl.Phdr.257d;ἄνθρωπος οὐ ς., i.e. a nobody, Ar.Fr.52D.; opp. χαῦνος, Pl.Sph.227b(Comp.); opp. κομψός, X.Oec.8.19; “σεμνὸς οὐ προσώπου συναγωγαῖς ἀλλὰβίου κατασκευαῖςIsoc.9.44: c. dat., revered by . . , “ς. πόλει” Riv.Fil.57.379(Crete); also, worthy of respect, honourable, 1 Ep.Ti.3.8, 11, Ep.Phil. 4.8.
2.of human things, august, stately, majestic,  
III. in bad sense, proud, haughty, “τὰ σέμν᾽ ἔπηS.Aj.1107; “σεμνότερος καὶ φοβερώτεροςAnd.4.18; τὸ ς. haughty reserve, E.Hipp.93, cf. Med.216.
2. [select] in contempt or irony, solemn, pompous.

aidos αἰδώς  reverence, awe, respect
A. reverence, awe, respect for the feeling or opinion of others or for one's own conscience, and so shame, self-respect (in full “ἑαυτοῦ αἰδώς” CA9p.433M.), sense of honour, “αἰδῶ θέσθ᾽ ἐνὶ θυμῷIl.15.561; ἴσχε γὰρ αἰ.καὶ δέος ib.657, cf. Sapph.28, Democr. 179, etc.; “αἰ. σωφροσύνης πλεῖστον μετέχει, αἰσχύνης δὲ εὐψυχίαTh. 1.84, cf.E.Supp.911, Arist.EN1108a32, etc.; “αἰδοῖ μειλιχίῃOd.8.172; so “ἀλλά με κωλύει αἴδως” Alc.55 (Sapphus est versus); “ἅμα κιθῶνι ἐκδυομένῳ συνεκδύεται καὶ τὴν αἰδῶ γυνήHdt.1.8; δακρύων πένθιμον αἰδῶ tears of grief and shame,A.Supp.579; “αἰ. τίς μ᾽ ἔχειPl. Sph.217d; “αἰ. καὶ δίκηId.Prt.322c; “αἰδοῦς ἐμπίπλασθαιX.Cyr.1.4.4; sobriety, moderation, Pi.O.13.115; “αἰδῶ λαβεῖνS.Aj.345
2. regard for others, respect, reverence, “αἰδοῦς οὐδεμιῆς ἔτυχον” Thgn.1266, cf. E.Heracl.460; αἰ.τοκέων respect for them, Pi.P.4.218; τὴν ἐμὴν αἰδῶ respect for me, A.Pers.699; regard for friends, “αἰδοῦςἀχαλκεύτοισιν ἔζευκται πέδαις” E.Fr.595; esp. regard for the helpless, compassion, “αἰδοῦς κῦρσαιS.OC247; forgiveness. 
II. that which causes shame or respect, and so,
1. [select] shame, scandal,αἰδώς, Ἀργεῖοι, κάκ᾽ ἐλέγχεαIl.5.787, etc.; αἰδώς, Λύκιοι: πόσε φεύγετε;16.422; “αἰδὼς μὲν νῦν ἥδε . . ” 17.336
2. τὰ αἰδοῖα, dignity, majestyαἰ. καὶ χάριςh.Cer.214.
III. [select] Αἰδώς personified, Reverence, Pi.O.7.44; Mercy, Ζηνὶ σύνθακος θρόνων Αἰ. S.OC1268, cf. Paus. 1.17.1; “παρθένος Αἰδοῦς Δίκη λέγεταιPl.Lg.943e.


Life's pleasures are many, long leisurely talks—a pleasant evil— [385] and the sense of awe. Yet they are of two sorts,1 one pleasure being no bad thing, another a burden upon houses. If propriety were always clear, there would not be two things designated by the same letters.

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